Brief Biographical Sketch of John Owen

John Owen was born in Stadhampton near Oxford in 1616. His father was Henry Owen, who was the local Puritan vicar. Owen displayed godly and scholarly qualities at an early age. He entered Queen’s College as an undergraduate at the age of twelve and studied classics, mathematics, philosophy, theology, Hebrew, and rabbinical writing. He earned his Bachelor and Masters degree in 1632 and 1635 respectively. He secured his M.A when he was just nineteen. Owen spent long hours in his study. He became the private chaplain for six years to Sir William Dormer of Ascot and then for John Lord Lovelace of Berkshire. Those six years of chaplaincy greatly helped him to have much time to study and began his writing career. He began to write books at the age of twenty-six, which he continued for forty-one years and produced more than eighty treatises. Most of his works have become classics, and the Lord has blessed his writings.[1]

J.I.Packer summarizes Owen’s vocation from 1637 till his death. Owen became the pastor in 1673 and later chaplain to Oliver Cromwell in the 1640s. In 1651 he became Dean of Christ Church, Oxford’s largest college and later was given the additional post of Vice-Chancellor of the University in 1652. After 1660 he led the Independents through the bitter years of persecution till his death in 1683.[2]

Though Owen grew up with Puritan convictions, yet he lacked personal assurance of faith until God directed him to listen to a country preacher who substituted Edmund Calamy in the pulpit. Owen heard the preacher exhorting from Matthew 8:26, “Why are ye fearful, ye of little faith.” God used that sermon to bring Owen to assurance of faith[3] and removed his doubts and fears that had plagued his mind vanished.[4]

 In 1643, Owen published his first theological treatise A Display of Arminianism, in which he expounded Calvinism to refute against Arminians. This book attracted immediate attention and earned him an offer of the living at Fordham in Essex from the Parliamentary Committee of Religion.[5] People recognized his ministry and appreciated his preaching and ministry. Moreover, he also was also proficient in catechizing his congregation and wrote two catechism books, one for children and one for adults.[6]

In 1646 Owen, after being influenced by John Cotton’s Keys to the Kingdom of Heaven and other political events, openly renounced from Presbyterianism to Congregationalism at Coggeshall and organized his church according to the Congregational principles. In the late 1640s Owen’s reputation grew and was recognized as a leading Congregationalist theologian. [7] In 1647 he published one of the best treatises The Death of Death in the Death of Christ to defend the Limited Atonement, and it drew disputation with Richard Baxter who believed in Amyraldian understanding of the atonement.[8]

Owen preached frequently to more than a thousand people, yet he often lamented that there was little fruit through his preaching. Once he preached before the Parliament on Hebrews 12:27 and Oliver Cromwell was impressed by it. The next day Owen was persuaded to go with Cromwell as a chaplain to Ireland to regulate the affairs of Trinity College in Dublin. In 1650, he was appointed as an official preacher of the state. He assisted Cromwell in on the Scottish expedition and tried to convince Scottish leaders and people to bring an end to the monarchy. In 1653, he was conferred a Doctor of Divinity against his wishes. Owen had a fruitful decade in the 1650s as he was able to publish several treatises, including major works such as Christ’s Satisfaction, Mortification of Sin, Communion with the Trinity, Schism, Temptation, etc. He helped Thomas Goodwin and others to formulate The Savoy Declaration in 1658.[9]

Owen was frequently sought after to advise or counsel to reconcile disputes and church settlements by Cromwell. However, when he opposed Cromwell’s ambition to become king, Owen lost his positions and eventually he retired to his small estate at Stadhampton. He continued to preach even after the “Great Ejection” in 1662 but lived in isolation.[10] In 1665, he was charged for holding religious conventicles at Oxford, but he escaped without imprisonment. He later returned to London and began a small congregation. He used his time not only in preaching but also in writing his treatises for the spiritual growth of the believers. During this period, he wrote Indwelling Sin, Exposition of Psalm 130and the Commentary on Hebrews. He also devoted his time to helping Independent ministers and supported financially as well as spiritually, which earned him the title of “prince and metropolitan of Independency.”[11]

In 1674, Pneumatologia, a classic on the work of the Holy Spirit was published. He did not stop his writing though he was suffering from asthma and gallstones. He produced his major treatises on Justification, Spiritual-mindedness, and the Glory of Christ in his last years.[12] He went to the Immanuel’s land on August 24, 1683, the anniversary of St Bartholomew’s Day.[13] Owen wrote to his friend the day before his death as follows: “I am going to Him whom my soul has loved, or rather who has loved, or rather who has first loved me with an everlasting love-which is the whole ground of my consolation… I am leaving the ship of the church in a storm; but whilst the great Pilot is in it, the loss of a poor under rower will be inconsiderable. Live, and pray, and hope, and wait patiently, and do not despond; the promise stands invincible, that He will never leave us, nor forsake us.”[14]

Kelly M. Kapic sums up of Owen’s life as follows: he was an army chaplain, a man of civil affairs and a political insider, Vice Chancellor of Oxford, a leading Puritan theologian, a faithful pastor, father and husband. He married twice, and his first wife Mary Rooke bore him eleven children but only one of them, his daughter survived beyond adolescence. Though she ended up marrying, she returned to live with her father when her marriage failed. He suffered a lot of pain in his life, yet he had hope in the Lord. Although Owen reached great heights in his career as a preacher before the Parliament, governing Oxford, having developed friendships with those in highest positions of authority including Cromwell, nonetheless he was removed from his position and went through loss of power.[15] Owen was rightly called “the prince of English Divines.” He was not only a preacher, but also a leading Puritan theologian.

Owen wrote so many treatises which included doctrinal, practical, controversial subjects. The Banner of Truth Trust has reprinted The Works of John Owen 16 volumes of Goold 1850-1855. Volumes 1-5 consists of doctrinal subjects such as The Person and the Glory of Christ, Communion with God, Discourse on the Holy Spirit, Justification by Faith. Volumes 6-9 consists of practical subjects namely, Mortification of Sin, Temptation, Exposition of Psalm 130, Spiritual-mindedness and Sermons. Moreover, volumes 10-16 have controversial subjects, Death of Death in the Death of Christ, The Doctrine of the Saints’ Perseverance, The True Nature of a Gospel Church and The Divine Original of the Scriptures. In addition, he also published Biblical Theology, which Owen considered as his magnum opus but it is the least known writings; The Correspondence of John Owen was published posthumously after recovering his letters to add historical value to his writings and biography. Finally, his gigantic work on the Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews was published in seven volumes, which was updated by Goold in 1850-1857 and Banner of Truth reprinted it in 1965.[16]

J.I.Packer acknowledged that Owen’s writings are difficult to read and complex, and in the introductory essay to The Death of Death in the Death of Christ,  writes “there is no denying that Owen is heavy and hard to read.”[17] Though his treatises are scholarly and difficult to read, yet some of his writings are more pastoral and practical especially volumes six to nine emphasizing on Mortification of SinTemptationSpiritual-mindednessTemptation, etc.

           Owen published his treatise on Mortification of Sin in 1656, while he was serving as the Dean of Christ Church College in Oxford. This book came out of his sermons which he preached to young students and academic community at Oxford. Kelly explains the significance of Owen’s address to the academic community: “One consequence of addressing this youthful audience seems to be that his reflections tend toward the concrete and practical, emphasizing the particular rather than lingering too long on the abstract. Here were young people who were beginning to experience the complexity of sin and self.”[18] When he saw the state and condition of the professing Christians who were struggling with sin, Owen was compelled to help them. Moreover, he also observed some men’s dangerous incorrect teaching about mortification of sin and his own desire to grow to promote holiness in his heart and others, Owen took this project. He was also pressed by many to publish his sermons as they sought to glorify God by mortifying sin. Finally, Owen was convinced to print it as a treatise with alterations.[19]

          One of my favorite writings of Owen is Mortification of Sin. In Mortification of Sin, Owen expounds Romans 8:13 and explains why to kill sin and how to kill sin. He highlighted the need, necessity and means of mortifying sin. I am hoping to write more on Mortification of Sin in the coming days.

  [1] Joel R. Beeke and Randall J. Pederson, Meet the Puritans: With a Guide to Modern Reprints (Grand Rapids, MI: Reformation Heritage Books, 2006), 455.

[2] J. I. Packer, Puritan Portraits: J.I. Packer on Selected Classic Pastors and Pastoral Classics: Richard Baxter, Thomas Boston, John Bunyan, Stephen Charnock, John Flavel, MathewHenry, John Owen, William Perkins, Henry Scougal (Fearn, Ross-shire: Christian Focus, 2012), 81–82.

[3] Beeke and Pederson, Meet the Puritans, 456.

[4] Don Marvin Everson, “The Puritan Theology of John Owen” 1959, 3.

[5] Godfrey Noel Vose, “Profile of a Puritan: John Owen (1616-1683)” 1963, 35.

[6] Beeke and Pederson, Meet the Puritans, 456.

[7] Ibid., 456–457.

[8] Carl R. Trueman, John Owen: Reformed Catholic, Renaissance Man (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007), 4.

[9] Beeke and Pederson, Meet the Puritans, 458–459.

[10] Ibid., 457–459.

[11] Ibid., 459–460.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Andrew Thomson, John Owen, Historymakers (Fearn: Christian Focus, 1996), 144.

[14] Beeke and Pederson, Meet the Puritans, 460.

[15] John Owen, Kelly M. Kapic, and Justin Taylor, Overcoming Sin & Temptation (Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Books, 2006), 24.

[16] Beeke and Pederson, Meet the Puritans, 460–463.

[17] John Owen, The Death of Death in the Death of Christ (Edinburgh ; Carlisle, Pa: Banner of Truth Trust, 2002), 25.

[18] Owen, Kapic, and Taylor, Overcoming Sin & Temptation, 25.

[19] John Owen and W. H. Goold, The Works of John Owen (London: Banner of Truth Trust, 1965), VI:3–4.

தூய்மைவாதிகளின் ஜெபம் – எங்கள் இரட்சகரே

எல்லா கிருபைகளுக்கும் காரணரே

நீர் எங்களுக்கு இரட்சகரை அருளினீர்

எனக்குள் விசுவாசத்தை பிறப்பித்து அவரால் வாழவும்

அவரே என்னுடைய விருப்பமாகவும்

என்னுடைய நம்பிக்கையாகவும்

என்னுடைய மகிமையும் ஆவார்

அவர் என் அடைக்கலமாவதால் அவரண்டை சேருவேன் (நுழைவேன்)

அவர் என் அஸ்திபாரமாவதால் அவரில் வளருவேன்

அவர் என் வழியாவதால் அவரில் நடப்பேன்

அவர் என் வழிகாட்டியாவதால் அவரைப் பின்பற்றுவேன்

அவர் என் உதாரணமாவதால் அவர் சாயலுக்கு ஒப்பாகுவேன்்

அவர் என் தீர்க்கதரிசியாவதால் அவருடைய போதனையை பெற்றுக்கொள்வேன்்

அவர் என் பிரதான ஆசாரியனாவதால் அவருடைய வேண்டுதலை சார்ந்திருப்பேன்்

அவர் என் அரசானாவதால் அவருக்கு கீழ்ப்படிவேன்…..

It is taken from Valley of Vision by Arthur Bennent, page. 88. The book contains prayers of Puritans.

வாழ்விலும் மரணத்திலும் உனக்குரிய ஒரே ஆறுதல் என்ன?

ஹைடல்பெர்க் (கேட்டகிசம்) வினாவிடைகளில் முதல் கேள்வி:

வாழ்விலும் மரணத்திலும் உனக்குரிய ஒரே ஆறுதல் என்ன?


நான், என்னுடைய சரீரம் மற்றும் ஆத்துமாவுடன், வாழ்விலும் மரணத்திலும்[1]எனக்கு நானே சொந்தமானவன் அல்ல.[2]மாறாக, என்னுடைய எல்லா பாவத்திற்காகவும்[3]தன்னுடைய விலையேறப்பெற்ற இரத்தத்தை[4]பூரணமான பலியாக சிந்தி என்னை சாத்தானின் சகல வல்லமையிலிருந்தும்[5]விடுவித்த உண்மையுள்ள இரட்சகராகிய இயேசுவுக்கே நான் சொந்தம்.[6]அவர் என்னை பாதுகாக்கிறார்.[7]ஆகவே என்னுடைய தலையிலிருந்து ஒரு முடியாகிலும் என்னுடைய பிதாவின் சித்தமில்லாமல் கீழே விழுவது கிடையாது.[8] ஆம், சகலமும் என்னுடைய மீட்பிற்கேதுவாக மட்டுமே நடைபெறும்.[9]ஆகவே, தமது பரிசுத்த ஆவியானவர் மூலம் எனக்கு நித்தியஜீவனை உறுதிப்படுத்தி[10]முழுவிருப்பத்துடன் அவருக்காக வாழ என்னை ஆயத்தப்படுத்துகிறார்.[11]


[1]  ரோமர் 14:7-8

[2] 1 கொரிந்தியர் 6:19

[3] 1 யோவான் 1:7-2:2

[4] 1 பேதுரு 1:18-19

[5] 1 யோவான் 3:7

[6] 1 கொரிந்தியர் 3:23

[7] யோவான் 6:39

[8] மத்தேயு 10:29-30

[9] ரோமர் 8:28

[10] 2 கொரிந்தியர் 1:21-22; எபெசியர் 1:13-14; ரோமர் 8:16

[11] ரோமர் 8:1

Welcome 2019!!

When you read this, you must have entered into 2019. Wish you a blessed New year ahead!welcome 2019

Welcome to 2019. As you step into 2019, I would like to remind you from Philippians 4:8 few things.

“Finally, brothers, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise, think about these things.”

Here Paul is calling the followers of Christ to give careful thought to ponder, consider and to be attentive thinkers. He suggests that a Christian should:

  • Seek the truth through the lens of Christ in everything you do.
  • Do the respectable/noble works to honor the LORD
  • Execute the right/righteous thing because you’re called to be a righteous in Christ.
  • Pursue purity through the power of the Holy Spirit since you are called to be holy and blameless.
  • Delight in pleasing the Lord in all things
  • Bring glory the Lord in everything you do.
  • Endorse and pursue godly character.
  • Seeking and walking worthy to our call as followers of Christ.

I believe the Holy Spirit will enable you to follow Phil 4:8 throughout 2019.

May God bless you!

 

Puritans’ Pilgrim Mentality

Puritans’ theology and the walk of life were shaped by their pilgrim mentality. They saw themselves as sojourners, traveling to the eternal city. Beeke quotes J.I. Packer, “Puritans saw themselves as God’s pilgrims traveling home. God’s warriors battling against the world, the flesh, and the devil; and God’s servants under orders to do all the good they could as they went along.”[1] For example, John Bunyan, in his book Pilgrim’s Progress, vividly paints the believers as pilgrims traveling from the city of destruction to the Eternal City.

Puritans had two-dimensional approach toward the pilgrim mentality.  on the one hand, they saw themselves as pilgrims who are in the world but not of the world. Christians are in the world yet called to be salt and light, image-bearers of God, Christ’s disciples and saints. The Puritans were very much part of the world and thoroughly engaged with all that happened. On ther other hand, they believed that Christians must distance themselves from this world and have the pilgrim status in their Christian living which means they pulled away from world’s culture and lived antithetically to it (2 Cor 6:17). They viewed themselces as aliens in their own society, and families sometimes. Moreover, they did not want to fulfill the desires and cravings of the fulesh which are powerful and influential. As pilgrims, they sought to glorify God alone.

The Puritans’ pilgrim mentality shines with various facets. Here we will briefly look at five of the outlooks: Biblical, Pietist, Churchly, Two-Worldly, and Warfaring.

Biblical Outlook

Puritans had a biblical outlook for living as determined by the Word of God. They viewed the Scripture as the only living book. They loved, lived, breathed and relished in the power of the Holy Spirit that was accompanied by the Scripture.  Puritans fed upon the Word and urged people to become Word-centered in faith and practice. They grounded their preaching and outlook in God’s Word. They believed that the Word renews their minds and transforms their lives.[2]

Pietist Outlook

The Puritans stressed personal holiness in our relationships to God and man, both in the church and in the community. Puritans’ understanding of piety consists of one’s duty to God, to family, and to the fatherland. It is rooted in love and exhibited in loyalty, kindness, honesty, and compassion. Puritans promoted piety in a number of ways. Here are a few examples.

  • Word-focused, Christ-centered, experiential preaching
  • Reading and searching the Scriptures (Bible study)
  • Meditating on the Biblical truths and Christian duties
  • Engaging frequently and at length in fervent prayer
  • Emphasizing continuing repentance
  • Cultivating an inward devotional life through daily private devotions and the means of grace
  • Maintaining family worship
  • Keeping the Sabbath by dedicating the entire day to God
  • Keeping journals and spiritual diaries
  • Communion with the saints (spiritual fellowship)[3]

Churchly Outlook

The Puritans also embraced churchly outlook. They believed and taught that the true church is the company of invisible and redeemed with Christ as the head of the church. According to Puritans, the church is a spiritual reality rather than an organizational, hierarchical or physical structure. They called the church buildings as the ‘meeting houses.’ The Puritans had great respect for the local church and its fellowship. They stressed that God must be glorified through the public worship in the church. They aimed for the purity of worship, purity of doctrine, purity of soul experience, purity of church government and discipline, purity in dedicating the entire Lord’s day to serve God, and purity of life itself. There was a remarkable emphasis on the individual holiness, church holiness which flowed out of the right doctrine and the Scripture.[4]

Two-Worldly Outlook

The Puritans held the two-world view of life, life in this world and the life to come. “They were persuaded that the joys of heaven will make amends of any losses, crosses, strains, and pains that we endure on earth if we follow God faithfully. This outlook was integral to the Puritans.”[5] The Puritans though lived to the full of this life, their eyes were focused on eternity with their heavenly-mindedness because they were active pilgrims, traveling home. The Puritans looked forward to Christ’s executing judgment on all people, and Christ calling his people to heaven. They kept their eyes on the celestial city.[6]

Warfaring outlook

The Puritans believed that the church on earth is a militant church, which involves in the spiritual warfare because it is part of the pilgrim’s life. They saw a battle within one’s soul and the struggle of inner life as a field of conflict and tension. They taught that every believer experiences a holy war that rages within believers according to Romans 7:14-25 because sin is always present in us. John Owen and William Gurnall describe clearly about our spiritual warfare against sin, flesh, and devil. Puritans believed that war with sin is a healthy sin for Christians. Puritans were able to discern the deceptiveness of heart and sin in themselves, which led them to seek God’s help to live a godly life and wage war against sin. Therefore, they could maintain diligent way to fight against sin, temptation, and Satan. Their warfaring outlook brought them a name “spiritual giants” in Christ as an example for us to learn from their lives and writings.[7]

In the Twenty-First, Christians ignorant of the pilgrim mentality. Remember, you are a sojourner.

[1] Joel R. Beeke and Mark Jones, A Puritan Theology: Doctrine for Life (Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 2012), 843.

[2]Beeke and Jones, A Puritan Theology, 844–846.

[3]Beeke and Jones, A Puritan Theology, 847–849.

[4]Beeke and Jones, A Puritan Theology, 850–852.

[5]Beeke and Jones, A Puritan Theology, 855.

[6]Beeke and Jones, A Puritan Theology, 856–857.

[7]Beeke and Jones, A Puritan Theology, 852–854.

When God hurls a great wind in your life?

 

Devotional thoughts: Jonah 1:1-16

God calls His people no matter where we are. He pursues us with His grace to achieve His will. To understand His continued grace, we shall meditate Jonah 1. That is a very profound chapter. The Lord commissions prophet Jonah to go to Ninevah and call out against them since their evil has come up to the Lord. Jonah rose up and went in the opposite direction. He did not go toward Ninevah rather went to Tarshish. He was deliberately fleeing from the presence of the Lord. He bought a ticket and went to the lowest deck of the ship and fell asleep. He did not realize that God would pursue him. Jonah was consciously running away from God’s commission, and His presence. However, the Lord did not call another prophet to fulfill that commission,  rather He pursued Jonah with His grace to accomplish His will.

When Jonah was sailing toward Tarshish, the LORD hurled a great wind upon the sea, and there was a big storm, which threatened to break the ship. The Lord caused it. Yes, you heard it right. In v.3, we can see that the Lord is portrayed as a warrior with a hammer striking the sea with a wind. Some may think that this imagery would scare people. Every time I visit a village or small town, I see idols holding swords and weapons which try to frighten people with their terrifying images. However, here the Lord is not frightening His people. When the Lord hurled the great wind upon the sea, it is not ultimately to destroy them but to give them the fear of the Lord, bless them and save them. When the great wind came upon the sea, the sailors, who were Gentiles, feared the LORD after getting to know Him through Jonah. They offered sacrifice to the Lord, and they exceedingly feared the LORD. Moreover, they were also blessed and saved from the death. Nevertheless, it is not the end of the story. The story explicitly pictures how the LORD pursues us with His grace to accomplish His will through His people. We may try to run away from His commission and His presence, yet He pursues us with His grace. He causes/hurls/allows great winds of sufferings, diseases, troubles, pains, tests, not to destroy us but to refine our faith, bless us and save us.

Thought to ponder: The Lord pursues us with His grace to accomplish His will.

Memory Verse:1:4

Prayer: Lord God, Help us to understand that you pursue us with your grace not to harm us but to bless and save us. Our great Redeemer, give us wisdom and strength to say “yes” to your call. Amen

ப்ரஸ்பிடேரியன் திருச்சபையின் “வெஸ்ட்மினிஸ்டர் விசுவாச அறிக்கை”

அதிகாரம் 1 – பரிசுத்த வேதாகமம்

1.1 இயற்கையின் வெளிச்சத்தில் பார்க்கும்போது, சிருஷ்டிப்பின் கிரியைகளும், தேவ நடத்துதலும், மனிதர்கள் எந்தவிதமான சாக்குப் போக்கு சொல்ல இடமில்லாமல் இருக்குமளவுக்கு தேவன் தன்னுடைய நற்குணம, ஞானம், மற்றும் வல்லமையை வெளிப்படுத்தியிருக்கின்றார்.[1] ஆகிலும் அவைகள் இரட்சிப்புக்குத் தேவையான தேவனை அறிகிற அறிவுமற்றும் அவருடைய சித்தத்தை தெரிந்துக்கொள்ளுவதற்கு போதுமானவையல்ல.[2] ஆகவே கர்த்தர் பல்வேறு காலங்களில் பலவிதமான வழிகளில் தம்மையும்,தமது சித்தத்தையும் அவருடைய திருச்சபைக்கு வெளிப்படுத்த பிரியங்கொண்டார்.[3] அதன்பின் மாம்சத்தின் களங்கத்திலிருந்தும், உலகம் மற்றும் பிசாசானவனின் வன்மத்திலிருந்தும் சத்தியத்தை மேம்பட்ட முறையில் பாதுகாக்கப்படவும், பிரசித்தம்பண்ணப்படவும், மற்றும் அவற்றின் மூலம் திருச்சபையை உறுதியாக நிலைப்படுத்தப்படவும் இந்த வெளிப்படுத்தலை முழுமையாக எழுதிவைக்க அவருக்குச் சித்தமாயிருந்தது.[4] தேவன் முற்காலத்தில் தம் சித்தத்தை வெளிப்படுத்தின வழிகள் முடிவடைந்து போனதால்[5] பரிசுத்த வேதாகமம் மிக அத்தியாவசிமானதாகும்.[6]
[1] ரோமர் 1:19-20; 2:14-15; சங்கீதம் 19:1-4
[2] யோவான் 17:3; 1 கொரிந்தியர் 1:21; 2:13-14
[3] எபிரேயர் 1:1-2
[4] லூக்கா 1:3-4; ரோமர் 15:4;  மத்தேயு 4:4,7,10; ஏசாயா 8:20
[5] 2 தீமோத்தேயு 3:16; 2 பேதுரு 1:20-21
[6] யோவான் 20:21; 1 கொரிந்தியர் 10:11; 14:37; எபிரேயர் 1:1-2; 2:2-4; 1 யோவான் 5:13

 

Chapter I – Of the Holy Scripture

I. Although the light of nature, and the works of creation and providence do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of God, as to leave men unexcusable; yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God, and of His will, which is necessary unto salvation. Therefore it pleased the Lord, at sundry times, and in divers manners, to reveal Himself, and to declare that His will unto His Church; and afterwards for the better preserving and propagating of the truth, and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the Church against the corruption of the flesh, and the malice of Satan and of the world, to commit the same wholly unto writing; which makes the Holy Scripture to be most necessary; those former ways of God’s revealing His will unto His people being now ceased.

 

 

Note: Tamil Presbyterian churches in India do not have (or use) Westminster Confession of Faith [WCF] in India. When I was thinking to translate the WCF, Rev. Parthee Shanmugam from Sri Lanka became friends on FaceBook. I shared with him about my desire to translate WCF. When he heard it, Rev. Parthee told me that WCF has been translated into Tamil in Sri Lanka and shared it with me. Now I am reading through the Tamil WCF and sharing it for a wider use. A BIG THANKS to him and the congregation.